Sample numbers (white font on gray circle) and resulting calibrated calendar years are indicated on the outer perimeter.
Table 1 presents the dating results of this section.
Charred olive wood is abundant in the archaeological record, especially around the Mediterranean.
As the outermost ring closest to the bark is assumed to represent the latest time that the tree was alive, the radiocarbon date obtained from the outermost rings of an olive branch buried during the Santorini volcanic eruption is regarded as crucial evidence for the date of this cataclysmic event.
Thus for radius 2, our visual ring count has underestimated the true number of years, serving as an additional example of the difficulty of identifying annual rings in olive wood. As more than half the samples from the outermost ring dated to well before 2013, we decided to re-examine the trunk of another olive tree from a different location in northern Israel that was studied previously, Zippori) were analyzed for radiocarbon dating from a cross-section of a whole olive tree cut down a few years after the tree had died, from the site of Zippori in northern Israel.
As the tree had been dead for only a few years before felling in 2013, the wood nearest the bark would be expected to fall within a few years from this date.
in the Aegean, as well as in Egypt and the Levant, has been debated for decades.